Ancient Chinese culture - Chinese textile printing - ancient silk dyeing and finishing technology
Printing process plays an important role in silk production. Because only with the use of dyeing and finishing technology, can we perfect our favorite color and silk dyeing and finishing case on the white blank at will, thus making the fabric more artistic. The process mainly includes four processes of refining, dyeing, printing and finishing raw silk and fabric.
Silk consists of two single filaments, the main body of which is sericin, and the outer layer is covered with sericin. Most of the pigments, oils, waxes and inorganic salts are present in the sericin. These impurities have a great influence on the effect of printing and dyeing, so they must be removed before dyeing. People in the long-term practice, mastered the sericin by chemical or enzymatic action is easily dissolved in water, and use the sericin this weakness, the billet silk or silk with soap or synthetic detergent solution mixed with soda ash (sodium carbonate) within the heating, heating after the sericin hydrolysis. After such refining, remove the sericin and keep the sericin, remove the pigment, grease, wax and other impurities, so as to obtain the silk products with white color. The raw silk after degumming is called ripe silk. The degree of degumming of raw silk must be determined according to production requirements.
Silk dyeing and finishing
(2) the dyeing
After being refined, the grey silk of white color will enter the dyeing stage. Dyeing is the process of making dyes react with silkworms and blank silks, so that the blank silks are dyed with various colors. As silk is a protein fiber, it is not alkali resistant, so dyeing should be carried out in acidic or nearly neutral dye solution. At present, the main dyes used in silk fabrics are acid dyes, reactive dyes, direct dyes and VAT dyes. The color of the product dyed with acid dyes is bright, and the color is treated with cation fixing agent after dyeing, which can improve the washing fastness of the product. Reactive dye dyeing on silk has good washing fastness. The dyeing method of the fabric varies with the fabric type. For example, crepe and yarn fabrics are dyed with rope or overflow jet dyeing, while for textile, silk and satin fabrics, they are dyed with flat width hanging or coil dyeing.
After all, one color is monotonous. Besides dyeing, people also use printing technology to make silk colorful. Printing is a process of printing dyes on a fabric in accordance with a design. Common printing techniques are direct printing, printing, anti - dyeing.
Direct printing refers to printing pulp directly on the silk fabric through the screen printing plate, is one of the basic printing methods, can be printed together with a variety of dyes.
Discharge printing, also known as carved plate printing, it is a use of carved white agent discharge process, before printing and dyeing with azo structure of acid dyes and reactive dyes dye the silk, again according to the pattern needs to be on the color silk printed on detergent containing damage of carved white pigment made from marking (discharge) pulp, after steaming, printing paste parts of the ground color to white color, is called "white" stone.
Anti-dyeing printing is to print the silk fabric with "anti-white" or "color proofing" pulp according to the pattern, and then dye it after drying. Because the pattern part has "white proof" pulp or "color proof" pulp anti-dye, will not stain, and the rest part will be all color.
(4) to sort out
After scouring, dyeing and printing, the fabric can be finished. Finishing process mainly solved the previous process of damp, buckling, the problem such as width is uneven, highlight the characteristics of soft silk itself and increase its taking function, mainly USES is mechanical finishing and chemical finishing two methods.
Mechanical finishing includes drawing finishing, steam ironing finishing, and calender finishing. Chemical finishing mainly adding chemical agents, such as softening agent, antistatic agent, fire prevention agent, composed of soda ash and trisodium phosphate sand lotion, etc., so as to achieve anti-wrinkle, preshrunk, soft and thick. The treated fabric is not only more suitable for wearing, but also broadens the consumption area of silk. When printed silks are made, fine arts and crafts and elegant and Oriental costumes can be made.
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